word 03

Javel’s view on the important of the upper half of the word was supported by the findings of Messner in 1903 that the dominant letters in the word are normally those which project above the line.
Messner considered that letters with ascenders are usually the dominating ones and play the main role in recognition. He analyzed the ‘ total character of words’ as consisting of three main factors: the breadth, the height and geometrical form of the letters. He groped letters in four categories: those composed essentially of (1) vertical strokes, (2) curved lines, (3) both vertical strokes and curved lines, and (4) oblique strokes.
It is the predominance in any given word of one or other of these categories of letters, Messner concluded, which gives it its characteristic total appearance.
He found that made up mainly of vertical letters (such as i l m n t) or curved letters (such as c e o s) were less readily perceived than words which contain either a mixture both or some letters (such as b d p q) which have both vertical strokes and curved lines. He described words containing about an equal number of vertical and curved letters as being ‘the most favourable total form’.

Letters composed essentially of:
1) vertical strokes: f h i j l m n r t u
2) curved lines: a c e g o s
3) both vertical strokes and curved lines: b d p q
4) oblique strokes: k v w x y z

This information is originated from the The Visible Word by Herbert Spencer in part.
It’s strongly recommended that if you will read a The Visible Word thoroughly, you are able to understand with this information on a more than superficial level.


Messnerは一般的にアセンダーを持つ文字は文字そのものを認識する上で主要な役割を果たすと考えています。文字の固まりを幅、高さ、文字そのものの幾何学的な形の3つにより分析した。そのうえで文字を(1)垂直画線、(2)曲線(3)垂直と曲線の両方の画線、および(4)斜めに傾いた線の4つの項目にわけました。これらが文字の集まりである単語のもつ外観の特徴を決定づけていると結論づけました。主に垂直線で構成されている文字(例えば i l m n t など)や湾曲した文字(例えば c e o など)で構成されている文字のほうが、垂直線とカーブの両方を含んだ文字(例えば b d p q など)よりも判別しにくいと考え、最も理想的な単語は垂直、カーブをバランスよく同じくらい含んた文字で構成されているものであるとしています。

1)垂直線:f h i j l m n r t u
2)曲線:a c e g o s
3)垂直線と曲線の両方: b d p q
4)斜めの線:k v w x y z

このコンテンツはHerbert Spencer著によるThe Visible Wordから一部引用したものです。次のことをお勧めします、もしあなたがThe Visible Wordを熟読すると、このコンテンツを表面的なレベルより深く理解することができます。

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